Family Card - Person Sheet
Family Card - Person Sheet
NameLudwig GRÜNFELD 110
Birth21 May 1864, Landeshut
Death31 Aug 1929, Bühlerhöhe
Birth16 Feb 1870, Kattowitz, Upper Silesia (Poland)
FatherAbraham GOLDSTEIN (1836-1902)
MotherRosalie CASSIRER (1845-1911)
Notes for Ludwig GRÜNFELD
Google Translation of an article on the family history of Grünfeld
Retrospects (‚Rückblicke')
Dr. rer. pol. Walter Grünfeld

Table of contents:
Chapter 1: Early panorama and prehistory
Chapter 2: The family and Kattowitz
Chapter 3: Childhood and early youth
Chapter 4: Kattowitz comes to Poland
Chapter 5: As a student in the Weimar Republic
A) Berlin
a) Life and study
b) ... and political manipulation
B) Munich
C)Between Breslau and at home
Chapter 6: To the end of Weimar
Chapter 7: Emigration home, into Poland
Chapter 8: World War II breaks out
Chapter 9: War refugee


EXCERPT FOR meta-studies

(from chapter 1: Early panorama and prehistory)
My first childhood memories of people in Upper Silesia show hardly traces of the large conflicts of later years and as one from today to it look back. I was born in 1908 in Kattowitz. Lie two world wars which decay of three empires, which so tragically futile struggles for existence of the Weimar Republic and independent Poland and then the Nazi disaster, which concerned Germany, Europe and the whole world, and still so particularly indescribably us Jews.

Over uppersilesian people often one wrote. The language had an accent, which let the neighbourhood with the Polish speaking Uppersilesians shine through, in broad layers of the German-speaking Uppersilesians and was interspersed with some domestic Polish force expressions. It was a quite hard sounding, but a cosy language. With us at home, in which school became and in the circle of acquaintances high German spoken, which was force expressions and the accent verpoent, but the obersilesian German was around one, one lived nevertheless thereby. Also one heard the Polish. In the city German was completely predominantly spoken, but Polish one heard as a child for example in the contact with farmers and farmer's wives of the environment, which one met with the daily walks, or if one went along on the market.

But the feeling for a strong tension between German and Polish was missing to me speaking humans in Upper Silesia as a child, and I believed, not only because of my childhood, but also that this tension was not so developed 1918 ago. It is correct, Upper Silesia was represented already in the realm day by the Polish delegate Korfanty, it gave Polish associations and newspapers, election campaigns, but all went into the war 1914.

If one looks back over the centuries, then Silesia, and particularly Upper Silesia so strong and frequent an area of the transitions, was with changing settlement influences and political upper sovereignties. The population, who was the environment of my childhood, carried off still the indications. Also a dialect of the Polish one, among us called water-Polish, was in today's Poland "gwara", which was spoken in Upper Silesia. It had lived for a long time separately from the Polish main country and occasionally under bohemian (Czech) and German influences, which had contributed to this dialect formation. The southeast corner of Upper Silesia, where Kattowitz lay, was so completely particularly a borderland. If one saw on clear days to the south, or south on the way to Pless drove, then one saw the mountain chain of the Beskiden, the northern part of the Karpaten, that was in Austria. It was the austrian Silesia, which the Prussian king Friedrich the great one at the end of its Silesian wars of the empress Maria Theresia had to still leave. If one drove on a larger trip to Bielitz at the edge of the Beskiden, then one went into coffee farmer, and who was, then us, like a correct Viennese coffee house, the people in the city was said to children spoke German with a Austrian accent. They had gone into Austrian schools, with us into Kattowitz were it Prussian. In the east of Kattowitz however was the Russian border. Only about ten kilometers away with Myslowitz was the three-emperor corner, where the German, Austrian and Russian empire collided. For us as children this idea was naturally fascinating. But the Russian border ran by Kattowitz, in few autominutes was still closer one in Czeladz and Sosnowitz, as it was called at that time with us, but it was naturally the Polish city Sosnowiec, which at that time under rule of the russian Tsars.

My grandfather and father were building contractors in Kattowitz. In Sosnowitz in the l9. century several Saxonian textile textilindustrielle had established themselves. My grandfather and father had implemented and were friendly the buildings, with the family Dietel. I remember attendance with them. Her car me horses was stored with us in the yard, if someone from the family to Kattowitz to buying came. Then we spoke with the kutscher, who came from Russia. But those are memories of the rather further and foreigner from the world of my childhood and former youth. Were things at the edge of the environment, because the environment was evenly "Upper Silesia", as it in approximately 160 years as a governmental district of the Prussian province Silesia had developed, and appeared to us in our youth. One understands to throw much better, if one tries, from the today a new, unabashed view of history. Already for the before-historical time there are substantial diversities of opinion between German and Polish historians.

Written excessive quantity begins late, but archaeological research has, compared with my school time, which extends picture of the early history of eastern Central Europe much, until far before the people migration. Before the Celts and after-moving Teutons white one today over the previous population and its cultures, sees earliest influences over the Danube area of Sueden(1), with own trade centers and metalworking in Silesia. After Polish views (2) carriers of these early cultures were already indogermanische, i.e. slawische trunks, so the well-known Lausitzer culture, and the appearing later Celts and Teuton only wandering through peoples, who exercised temporary rule over existing Urbevoelkerung, similarly as one it of Awaren or Hunnen knows. Others remain with earlier view that slawische trunks only the Teutons further-pulling to the west advanced.

As early slawische state formation appears in 9. Century A.D. a Greater Moravia realm, soon outdated from the Boehmi realm of the Przemysliden dynasty, which, by mission from neighbouring Bavarian dioceses to the Roman Christianity bekehrt, finds its entrance into the abendlaendische world and into these also Silesia includes, from where 950 A.D. a Missionar to Posen goes.

There in the meantime the core of a Polish realm under the Piasten Mieszko I. had developed. Under the influence both of Bohemia and from Saxonia also to the catholicism bekehrt, towered above it soon the older Bohemia and conquered Silesia, which remains for centuries now area of changing influences and often renewed controversy between Boehmen and Poland.

The Polish Piasten divided into different lines, one was in Silesia, continued to divide into several silesian duchies. The church sovereignty remained with the Polish diocese Gnesen and in the southernmost Upper Silesia with Krakau, but national sovereignty changed and fell finally by contract 1335 to the boehmische crown (3), at that time, after becoming extinct the Czech Przemysliden, in the hand of the Luxemburger, which placed also several German emperors.

The invasions of the Mongols in the 13th century had been stopped in Silesia to the benefit for the whole of Europe by silesian, polish and german forces, but large devastations remained. Perhaps were this cause for strengthened settlement from Germany, on invitation of silesian Piasten and of monasteries, consisting of rural and urban settlement, both under legal orders bring along from German areas, by which also beyond Silesia in Polish areas use was then made. The wave of German settlement lasted to in 14. Century, left different traces in the population, the picture changes in the course of the years again, at some places sees one progressive assimilation of settlers to the Polish speaking environment. German settlement, just like increasing became related by marriage of silesian Piastenherzoege with German prince families also a drive could have been for the decision of silesian Piasten for bohemian instead of Polish sovereignty. One must be probably careful however with the interpretation of medieval dynastischer decisions. Silesia remained now with the bohemian crown for 400 years, had however not at all so long peace, it into their conflicts was included, so the Hussitenkriege with Czech, Hungarian and then Polish jagiellonischen interraining between Luxemburgern and finally the Habsburger rulers, who ererbten all 1526.

The reformation penetrated early in Silesia. The structure of the rule had changed. The silesian Piastenherzogtuemer fell when becoming extinct the lines as condition rule to foreign princes, under it also high zollern, or by Prague to newcomers was assigned. The silesian "conditions" became thus a ever more complex meeting.

The noble conditions Boehmens and Maehrens had won during confusions around the boehmische crown very much at power. That contributed to the fact that the reformation in Boehmen and Maehren made particularly large progress; also in Silesia it spread out under influences from different directions. In Poland the reformation made first also for impression and finds trailers also under Polish noble ones and municipalities in Upper Silesia. It was not like that that with the transition of the sovereignty at Boehmen the economical and cultural contact with the adjacent Polish areas would have stopped. It existed the far church entwinement of most uppersilesian Dekanate with the diocese of Cracow. Also to the Universitaetstudium Uppersilesians go to Cracow, but one reads also from a Polish Protestant clergyman in the village Woschczytz belonging to to the condition rule Pless, which had gone to the study to Wittenberg (4).

The mention of Woschczytz interested me, because then the first traces of our family Grünfeld in Upper Silesia are later there. The Gegenreformation, with extreme severity by the Habsburger emperors in Silesia accomplished, reduced here the protest anti-mash soon, but in Boehmen the relations of the conditions with the habsburgischen emperor remained so strained that from there the dreissigjaehrige war broke out, which should pull the neighbouring Silesia terribly in. Boiling stone and one field armies pulled through and kampierten, it lasted for a long time, until the setback was overcome in the prosperity of Silesia.

A necessary note

After the review of historical developments in Upper Silesia, which already brought us on the closer area, in which I mean family then in the early l9. century anfinde, am it time, to remember that this was a Jewish family, and the fate of the Jews in Upper Silesia, like in Europe at all, still another special view requires. After a verbal tradition our family is to have come from Maehren to Upper Silesia and have originally originated from Iglau. If I try to introduce itself, how it could have been issued my Jewish ancestors in the time, of which we spoke, thinks I for the time being of the history of the Jews in Maehren. Buyers "in Maehren, certified of Jews as", there are earliest recorded attendance from 903 AD., but beginning of their settlement becomes only for 12. Century accepted (5).

One notices it as urban settlement, like in the German cities Speyer and Worms gives it to legal protection for Jews as minority. In Prague it becomes in a statute of approx.. 1174 together for German, flaemische and Jewish buyers regulated, and in Moravia first in the municipal law of Iglau, a city grown fast, which had soon one of the largest Jewish municipalities of Moravia, but 1426 were driven out the Jews from the city, because they would have supported the Hussites. Soon driving out followed from the other independent cities, because of the more common reproach of usury. Certainly in Iglau economic envy of the Staedter with religious eagerness of new rulers had already paired itself. The maehrischen Jews found Refugium in smaller, noble basic gentlemen to untertaenigen cities, could there and also the adjacent villages, which often belonged to the same noble one, trade carry on (6).

They could also at the regular markets in the larger cities, from which they were driven out, participate against payment of visitor fees. The independent self-willedness of the aristocracy in Maehren, already mentioned, showed up not only in the strong portion of protestanten, but also in the tough resistance against restriction of their possibilities of making from gainful occupation of Jew use. Jews claimant not only trade, them became tenants or publishers for new commercial enterprises of noble goods, like tanneries or branntweinbrennereien (7). The Refugiumcharakter Maehrens stretched also on the Maehren of neighbouring areas of the former uppersilesian duchies Ratibor and Oppeln out (8). Maehren became also Refugium for other Jews, so with Jew driving from Vienna, during confusions of the dreissigjaehrigen war and also bloody pursuits in eastern Poland (Ukraine) 1648. In Silesia had himself and anti-Jewish policy of the Habsburger paired inspired by the gegenreformatorischen eagerness against all "Akatholi" with the economic opposition of the cities against the Jews emperor to in 17. Century so far interspersed that there were Jews with unlimited rights to residence only in the two cities Glogau and Zuelz, but itself in the southern Upper Silesia a small Jewish population on the country received could. Economic needs however spoke for maintenance of Jewish participation, particularly from Poland, at the urban markets, and it came to small settlements (9).

At the beginning 18. Century already tried Maria Theresia like her father to strengthen the restrictions against Jewish residence also in Bohemia and Moravia again and 1744 ordered it the classification of all Jews from its "hereditary kingdom Boeheimb" because of alleged Prussia-friendly attitude of the Jews during the Silesian war (10). That concerned also Moravia. The periods were locally differently extended. It seems thus that immigration of moravian Jews is well explainable into the close, meanwhile southern Upper Silesia belonging to to Prussia just for this time.

Chapter 2: The family in Kattowitz

This leads us to the beginnings of Jewish emancipation, something from the life in one of the uppersilesian, smaller cities such as Sohrau, then the development of the uppersilesian industrial area and the emergence of the city Kattowitz. The German Polish problem places itself primarily in the provinces Posen and west Prussia pleased by the divisions of Poland at Prussia, but plays also a role in the strongly Polish-speaking Upper Silesia. We think of cultural and local development in the young city Kattowitz, in which I was then born 1908.

My great-grandfather Hirschel Grünfeld find one in the list of the silesian Jews (1), becoming by the Hardenberg' reforms 1812 to Prussian citizens. it pulls 1817 with its wife and three of its children of Woschczytz after the city Sohrau (2). After the death of its wife 1818 (3) he marries 1820 Lewine (late Louise) Huldschinsky (4). This new family Grünfeld has then three sons and five daughters to Hirschel Grünfeld 1840 in Sohrau dies.

I have hardly reference points to make for me a picture from him to at the most from the environment, in which he lived. The village Woschczytz, already mentioned by me, is 1836 proven with water and sawing mill and one fresh fire, 57 houses and 352 inhabitants (5). In the process of the again increasing settlement of Jews in Upper Silesia it is mentioned for 1693 (6), but already for 1678 appears a Jewish fair guest in Leipzig from Woschczytz(7). The proximity of the city Sohrau pulled probably also Jewish buyers after the neighbouring Woschczytz, since settlement for it was limited in Sohrau. Sohrau became economical strongly by its Woll woll-und late canvas weaving mill, and to it already came into 16. Century an important Schuhmachergewerbe(8), with occasionally 32 masters. Hirschel of Grünfeld occupation "leather trade" can do thereby to have had. Over extent and success of its business in the family no information kept. It died with approximately 60 years, its wife was substantially younger, the youngest of the eight children in the same year was only born. A sister of the woman had married the restaurant operator/barkeeper Hirschel Loebinger in Sohrau. My father stressed often that the families lived together closely, also that the family Loebinger just like Grünfeld from Moravia to Upper Silesia had come.

The two elder sons of Hirschel Grünfeld left Sohrau soon after his death, thus still very young, i.e. Abraham, born 1823 and Isaak, late Ignatz mentioned, born 1826, my grandfather. He becomes later a bricklayer apprentice and has then different positions as if associated and to foreman, until he establishes himself 1855 in the village and industrial municipality Kattowitz as a master. However we regain a Abraham Grünfeld in Sohrau, usually as teachers designation, sometimes as a buyer. Also my great-grandmother lived still until around 1870 in Sohrau, it remained also for my father a kind term of a place of origin of the family, I could also today later a certain picture of the life there make itself, because there is a very detailed urban history (9). My hometown Kattowitz did not give it yet at all as city in the 1.Haelfte 19. Century, but Sohrau had remained predominantly catholic an old city with traditional civil and guild life. I was it to see interesting, like at present my great-grandparents the life, with increasing freedom of trade, changed to there, and which one can see over the emancipation of the Jews and their problems thereby. Jews were probably for a long time connected with the economic life by Sohrau. Already for 1511 "Jew field" beside the city are mentioned (10). The cities permitted Jews to their markets, even if they were not allowed to settle long time. Only for 18. We hear century then of Jewish inhabitants. 1791 lives however at Jews only 34 persons in the city, 103 in the "suburbs". 1856 was it 471, after the emancipation to Sohrau strong influx of Jewish families particularly from the villages of the circles Rybnik and Pless had then already received. Beginning 19. Century a synagog is engaged built, a cemetery furnished, a Rabbiner, and there were Jewish teachers. The training of the children is straight also after the emancipation a certain problem in small municipalities.

Among the silesian country-Jews, where often only few lived, often only individual Jewish families in a village, there was the mechanism of the house teachers, and private teacher gave it then also first in Sohrau. The public supervised schools, which, were konfessionell, also the Jewish municipality were furnished were incumbent on after emancipation to provide for the correct training of their children. For smaller municipalities it was financially not simple to follow the new official obligations for the education of its children. A system to accept young Jewish people as house teachers had probably helped well-off land Jews. In order to meet the compulsory schooling after the emancipation, to it authorized teachers completely different requirements were placed however on, and the Jewish municipality had a continuing fight to receive for of her employee teacher official permission.

Many could not pass the exams later which can be put down. Thus there was a frequent change. Occasionally the municipality could maintain a Jewish elementary school or even some classes of a advanced school. If in catholic elementary schools place were, Jewish children could be also accepted, already to the 1820er years seemed some Jewish families that even been preferring and in the maintenance of Jewish schools not to have been any longer interested in such a way. But still 1858 must be established a Jewish school again, since in the catholic no place is. Between them there was also a Christian private teacher, who maintained a school for the Protestant and Jewish children. If children went into not-Jewish schools, the municipality had to provide for its religious education by a sufficiently qualified teacher. When such sequentially A. Gruenfeld mentioned (11), also still for 1858. As a religion teacher actively, he remained thus probably for the Jewish tradition arrested.

In the Jewish population we see the well-known picture of progressive emancipation and assimilation. Already in the 1. Half 19. Century find we two Jewish physicians generally outstanding in the city (Wachsmann and Karfunkel), several factory owners, from the muehlenbesitzer family star comes the later Nobelpreistraeger for physics Otto Stern (1943, 1888 born in Sohrau). Also in the committees of the city administration we find early Jewish names, and just as in different urban associations, e.g. woman association and freiwillige fire-brigade. In 18. Century gave it still the old structures in the city to Sohrau. Industry is a trade relating to crafts, and the guilds mark the organization of the urban life. In 19. Century changes the picture. Also under the Jew growing up pulling into the city there or there are some craftsmen, quite specifically for Upper Silesia.

Over the vocational career/development of my grandfather Ignatz Grünfeld until it 1855 in Kattowitz established themselves, some his certifications kept. After only verbal excessive quantity it was first employed as an apprentice with the likewise Jewish bricklayer master Lubowski in Gleiwitz. 1847 is it already bricklayer-associated and continue working with bricklayer master Petzholtz in potsdam with the domed structure of the there Nikolaikirche, afterwards as if bricklayer-associated in Stettin (Muench) and Breslau (Hoseus), of 1850 as a bricklayer foreman in Gleiwitz (Wachter and Lubowski). As building of masters in the certification from 16 September 1857 a house for Simon Goldstein in Kattowitz is called, which later admits petrols by the cafe became, and today still with Kawarnia Krysztalowa at the main street in Katowice stands.

Its environment and experiences were clearly different from those of the teacher A. Gruenfeld in Sohrau. With some pride still us it was told to grandchildren that he had worked in potsdam on the dome of the Nikolaikirche. The "journey" also outside of Upper Silesia had contributed surely to extend its view for the successful entrepreneur shank of its later years. But the Kattowitz, in which he established himself 1855, was first still another village (13). The neighbouring Bogutzker hammer was not since 1756 no more in enterprise. This form of the eisengewinnung was no longer competitive in relation to newer developments, both economically and in quality of the product, also the procurement of wood and ore had become more difficult. 1799 were sold the manor at commission advice Koulhaass, from which it inherited his daughter Mrs. Wedding, and who are already names, which are closely connected with the rapid development of the mountain and the metallurgical engineering in Upper Silesia. After the sensational first steam engine coming from England (even Goethe came to visit it) on a pit with Tarnowitz 1788 and the first coke blast furnace in Prussia 1792/96 had been established, these developments came still more near at Kattowitz by the building of the also national king hut (1798/1802), their director (until 1818) hut supervisor Wedding it undertook to modernize the Bogutzker hammer by building of a blast furnace. The rule acquired 1839 Franz Winkler, graduate of the Tarnowitzer mountain school, after an already successful career richly married. It developed crucial initiative for the economic progress of Kattowitz and 1840 was ennobled. For the continuity of the administration and the contribution for the development of Kattowitz provided Winklers study friend and coworker Friedrich William basic man, who is regarded later together with his son-in-law Dr. Holtze than founders of the city Kattowitz, i.e., established in Kattowitz than physician, the vorkaempfer for the city becoming of the village 1865.

My grandfather resided thus since 1855 there, and married the 1837 in the neighbouring village Zalenze born Johanna Sachs, daughter of the Arendators of the property rule Zalenze, Peretz Sachs (14). To the property district Bogutzker hammer with village Kattowitz had not been limited industrial development at all. To the king hut in Welnowiec 1809 the Hohenlohehuette with coke blast furnace, then at the border between Kattowitz, had come Zalenze and Domb 1828 the Baildonhuette built by the Englishman John Baildon (15) for steelmaking into enterprise and into Zalenze also 1840 the coal pit Kleofas of Gie. The restaurant, which belonged to the Arende of my great-grandfather Peretz Sachs, could rely thus on an increasing public. Jakob Grünfeld from Sohrau, the younger brother of my grandfather, married another daughter, Maria, the Peretz Sachs, and took over later the restaurant. It became as "Gruenfeld's garden" for many decades much admits.

The grandmother went into the 1840er year into Zalenze into the catholic village school. I tried to make for me in connection with this family excessive quantity a picture from school conditions at that time to. One encounters directly the language question between Prussian administration and strongly Polish speaking population. I did not find data for Zalenze, but in the neighbouring village Kattowitz had been opened 1827 a first einklassige school, in two languages (16). The children of Kattowitz went before to the school into Bogutschuetz, which is already mentioned for 1804 (17).

The Prussian policy in relation to the large Polish population, in the areas which were assigned by the divisions of Poland was subject in 19. Century repeated tendency and goal changes. Under the influence of the stone Stein-Hardenberg' reform ideas, particularly embodied by the school Minister old person stone, the attitude had been konziliant (18). It favoured the structure of a Polish public education, primarily in floats, which had been a heartland of the Kingdom of Poland. The Polish rebellion in Russian Russian 1830/31 led to a complete reversal opposite Poland also in Prussia, which made place for a more liberal attitude however into the 1840er years again. The Polish thing had become a favourite topic of the liberals freedom fighter in Europe, and the new Prussian king Friedrich William IV. did not extract itself from these tendencies (19). The Polish population of Upper Silesia is mentioned already at that time in these internal-Prussian arguments (20).
In March 1848 it belonged anyhow also to the ideas in the Paulskirche that with the desired German agreement also the division of Poland should be cancelled, into which Prussia had at that time entangled itself. But it did not come 1848 to this German agreement. In Prussia thereafter the anti-liberals reinforced themselves tendencies, and as it 1871 for German agreement under Prussian guidance came, even gave the new German national consciousness of the Prussian anti-Polish policy a completely new note. It was demanded now no longer only the loyalty of the Polish inhabitants in relation to the Prussian monarchy, but the goal had to be their perfect Germanisierung. Thus at present Bismarck's the whole Prussian nationality and school politics as radical was intensified as it in memory remained then later. It was besides also the time of the "culture fight", to which the German catholic central party was suspended. >From the official policy the sense for authorization of the protection that disappeared totalPrussian seen to national and linguistic Polish minority, and all national protection was given to the increasing German population portion in the questionable provinces. An interesting thought from M.Broszat to it is (21) that the expectation of loyalty would actually have required strict neutrality of the state also on the part of the minority for the national sovereignty, where it concerned the local interests of the German population. But the fading state ideas from Imperium and crown had been displaced evenly of the Omnipraesenz of nationalnational thinking, and seemed no area to leave for conceptions of pluralistischen orders also for living together different nationalities. The two world wars 20. Century seem to have changed in it few, although the implementation seems to depend on hopes for a European agreement on it.

On this flight of fancy we are come from the assumption that the village school of my grandmother was at that time still bilingual possibly. I know also that both grandparents could speak the uppersilesian Polish; my father told that they used it, if their purely German-language growing up children should not understand somewhat. The village Kattowitz was in the 1.Haelfte 19. Century amazingly grown (22). 1846 became it an important station of the new railway Breslau Myslowitz as a place of transshipment for branch connections a large periphery of many pits and works with its associated localities. Finally Kattowitz had grown in such a way that it was made 1865 a city. This happened however only after sharp arguments between the old-established village inhabitants and the newcomers. Under the village condition the "Gromada" prevailed, the meeting of the basic owners, thus the old-established farmers to newtighten i.e. owners of gardner place and those under who had been able to acquire meanwhile house possession. Originally also all local rates came only from these inhabitants, but 1856 changed the tax laws, all inhabitants paid local rates, but the village condition was not changed, and which could decide controlled Gromada still from the Polish speaking farmers alone on the use of the incomes. Under an urban condition that would different have been. For a city council there was the general right to vote after the Prussian three-class right to vote with voices in favor of the higher incomes weighed. The controversy with the Gromada came, because there were many more fastidious ones and good-earning among the newcomers with own ideas alone already over road paving and lighting etc.. For the established farmers it could already have been an obvious idea that the place with the conditions and requirements large industrial development should hold to the own use step. Now was rural resistance against it and against acquisition of municipal rights a completely usual situation and understandable from the contrast of the pertinent interests of both sides well, or was it a special situation by the national contrasts in Upper Silesia?

Of the today's focus late 20. Century could also say one, these farmers were apparent completely early environmentalists, who did not want to see their village world displaced by broad-making the industry. But like so often, the German-Polish tension is stated here, both of contemporaries, and in later reviews, from both sides as the principal reason. Already Dr. Holtze reports in his urban history of 1871 that the Polish farmers never rejected all demands that, as they said "Germans and Jews" with one "chca", and the Gymnasialdirektor G.Hoffmann commentates in its urban history from 1895 to it: "it was evenly the resistance of the Polish-rural element against the progress" (23), represented from German and Jewish side.

Today's Polish voices from Katowice remind of the resistance of the farmers against the Germanisierungstendenzen of the newcomers, who alone the award of municipal rights should serve, and to the last Polish Dofschulzen Kazimierz Skiba, which until 1859 20 years in the office had been, for Polish language and school fought and a large Polish library for itself collected (24). Thus its is thought now as soul of the not only rural, but national Polish resistance at that time against the city becoming. In the meantime the small village increased however not only to the capital of Upper Silesia, but also to one of the most important cities today's Poland with approximately 500,000 inhabitants.

Germans and Jews are identified thereby separately, but sit on the same bank as opponents of the original village inhabitants. Although Jews are mentioned already 1702 and 1737, as the first Jewish Ansiedler in the village Kattowitz Hirschel Fröhlich is mentioned (25), which leased 1825 the Arrende. We find his son Heimann Fröhlich prominent in the reports over the controversy between farmer and immigrants, who dragged on from 1859 to the city becoming 1865. When my grandfather moved 1855 to Kattowitz, there meanwhile 105 Jewish persons, 1865 lived were it 573 among 4815 inhabitants, thus 11. 9%, their portion of the local rates however amounted to 36,7% (26). By the industrialization and as consequence of the Jewish emancipation the more fully developing industrial cities attracted many Jews from smaller uppersilesian cities and villages. Kattowitz, the so rapidly developing industrial municipality, up to then without larger established patriating and offered particularly good area to them for energy and shaping.

The spirit of the emancipation to participate as everywhere in Europe, with the attraction in lives and culture of the environment actively and integrate into it more, led itself in the Upper Silesia at that time to Jewish Hinneigung and increasing identification with the German element. That was in many places like that in eastern Central Europe; for Kattowitz it noticed to me that this living together thereby had also begun that they had sat together on a bank and had led the fight for the city becoming.

An argument for the Prussian three-class right to vote for city councils was that those will beige-pull vocationally and economically most successful one also for the line of the fate of a city should. In many parts of Prussia this led to a relatively high portion of Jews in city councils. They must quite often have been characterised also among their colleagues, because a Jew was often selected to the city delegate chief. That was not only in such a way in Upper Silesia, we finds it also in Breslau and Berlin. In the young Kattowitz their portion was still higher in the population and in urban organs than in other uppersilesian cities and still grew after the first choice of 1866 (27), with which among the first 18 selected city delegates sieved Jew was, among them also Ignatz Grünfeld, which remained up to its death of 1894 city delegates.

The brother of my grandmother, Elias Sachs, became still more active in the city administration. After an early meteorischen career, it caught on with the collecting of horse entrails as fuel and bonding agents for the metallurgical industry, expanded since important coal trade, created the first banking transaction in Kattowitz and took part with two other Kattowitzer city delegate, Rosse and hammer, in the establishment of the Kattowitzer AG for ironworks in Hajduck (28), in whose supervisory board it remained active up to its death in Berlin 1908. It was since 1872 town councillor in Kattowitz and 1892 before its way course after Breslau the city-oldest was appointed. The construction industry created by my grandfather Ignatz Grünfeld was also very successful. It was continued under its name still into the 1930er years (29).

In the constant growth of the city Kattowitz it had given to still two new developments, which mark their increasing meaning within the uppersilesian industrial area. 1882 became the seat Oberschlesische mountain and metallurgical association, which shifts central organization of the ouppersilesian heavy industry from Beuthen to Kattowitz, and 1895 were intended Kattowitz for the seat to again-form of the own railway management for the uppersilesian industrial area. Longer negotiations with the city administration preceded that, which had to guarantee creation of the necessary dwelling for the new officials. Here my grandfather is to have played an active role still on sides of the city administration.

From the six sons of the Ignatz Grünfeld two selected also the building trade. The secondaryoldest, max, studied architecture and remained in the government service, returned then as a master of building of governments a.D. to Kattowitz. The third-oldest, my father Hugo Grünfeld, visited the building trade school and occurred then with the title building master still very young the construction industry of its father. After the death of my grandfather 1894 these two brothers resumed his construction industry and also into offices in the city administration were selected. Max one was some years as an advice of building of cities member of municipal authorities, my father became a city delegate (30).

Like far the party politics of Germany already in 19. Century at times of my grandfather a role with city council elections in Kattowitz played, could not determine I no more. The liberals of civil circles in Germany had developed after 1848 in different directions: the national liberals became completely system-faithfully on sides of Bismarck, which freeintimate people's party stood, more progressively, left of it, therefore the actual vorkaempfer of the 1848er remained ideals. Right of the national liberals there were then still the conservative ones and all Germans as a radical nationalist. The prominent people of the uppersilesian heavy industry belonged to the camp more oriented towards the right of the national liberals, if not still further right, and the large well established daily paper agreed "Kattowitzer Zeitung" with the prevailing trend of industry and bureaucracy. The free-intimate middle class had in the city administration of Kattowitz a strong position, just like in Breslau and Berlin, but there were there also free-intimate newspapers (the "Breslauer Zeitung" and several very well-known in Berlin).

With the two brothers Grünfeld was anyhow already very much expressed the political commitment at the beginning of the century. They undertook an attempt to develop in the "0berschlesischen Tageblatt" the thoughts of the freeintimate party devoted newspaper. As an editor Balder Olden, brother late well-known of the become writer and journalist Rudolf Olden had been engaged. The newspaper could however not hold itself, and had with 300.000 Marks loss be given up, how my father told me.

Grandfather's construction industry had however developed further well. A new branch, favourite project of my father, was a large brickyard, which was built for 1895 in the area of the earlier "Vorwerks" equipped by Kattowitz, Karbowa, with the last technical innovations, also for special products like glazed bricks and other Ziersteine, which one can see still today at some fronts in Katowice. Besides also a Bautischlerei and a forging workshop were opened.

My uncle max Grünfeld however moved then already early to Berlin and opened a branch of the company, which built a whole set of houses there, particularly in Charlottenburg and Wilmersdorf, but one also at Unter den Linden. It practiced also as an architect, became a very active and prominent freemason, built also the well-known lodge house at the Emser road in Wilmersdorf. He married only at the age, 1925, already before from the business had withdrawn themselves and died 1932 in Berlin.

>From the four other brothers of my father the two medical profession, the oldest, were Hermann, than practical physician in Berlin cross mountain (31), and Ernst (32) orthopedic surgeon in Beuthen. The other two studied law, Bruno were a senior counsel in Berlin, but the youngest, Paul, occurred after its study the ore commercial firm Rawack & Grünfeld Beuthen, took part later in a chemical factory in Nuernberg, from that the society for electrometallurgy (GfE), prominently in the ferro-alloy industry, developed. He was a very business and farsighted man, in a branch of industry, that in the course 20. Century large meaning and possibilities achieved.

>From the four sisters of the father three lawyers, Martha married the senior counsel Ernst Kaiser in Beuthen, Minna the senior counsel Salomon Epstein in Kattowitz, where it became also up to its early death 1908 short time city delegate chief, and Luzie the regional court advice max of Hirschel in Gleiwitz. The youngest daughter, IDA, married Felix Benjamin, a nephew of the secret Kommerzienrats Louis Grünfeld, boss of the company Rawack & Gruenfeld, whose successor also became he.

The families Grünfeld and Sachs were however still much larger. Jakob Grünfeld in Zalenze had eight daughters and two sons, Elias Sachs of four sons and daughter Grete, and it gave still another brother Abraham and further sisters Sachs to my grandmother.

Marriage of my father with Margarete Oettinger

My father had remained long bachelor, until he married in 1906 with 41 years my mother, 18 years younger Margarete Oettinger from Breslau. I can pursue their family up to my Ururgrossvater Josef Oettinger in Rachwitz (Rakoniewice) in the province of Posen (33). One of his sons, my great-grandfather Albert, physician, attained a doctorate at the University of Berlin 1835 (34), and established himself in Neustadt near Pinne (Lwowek), married with Ettel Schiff (35). The couple had three sons and a daughter, who married the physician Dr. Riesenfeld in Breslau.

All three sons went also to Breslau and my great-grandfather died there in 1860. With its oldest son Richard was unusual that he was to have gone through as a boy in one of the Polish rebellions. Then he married a German, not-Jewish actress, was very successful in the flax wholesale, so that he was temporarily regarded as the richest man Breslaus. His son, Richard, grew up as a protestant and was ride master with the Gleiwitzer Ulanen. The two other sons, Siegmund and my grandfather Max Oettinger, created together a flax wholesale firm and brought it later to prosperity, Siegmund in Berlin.

My grandfather continued to lead the business in Breslau, where he became also an outstanding fellow citizen, many decades of city delegate, one of four delegates of the city Breslau in the parliament of the province of Silesian and is enough year for director of the "society of the friends", a civil combination, in which the liberals of circles were united, contrary to the well-known very old buyer combination "Zwinger". He married Minna Weinstein from Insterburg in East Prussia, where their father was a director of a spinning mill (36).

My mother was that youngest of the three children. The older sister Frieda was married with Dr. Paul Gerber in Königsberg, physician and also writer (37), my mother's brother Walter Oettinger was a physician, bacteriologist, extraordinary professor at the University of Breslau (38). Brothers and sisters and some cousins and female cousins of my mother became Protestant. One of the closest friends of my mother in their late young girl time in Breslau was Stella Whiteside, later married with Dudley Braham, from two English sisters, who lived at that time in Silesia and gave English instruction. Very much later, when after World War II I saw her again in London, she told that she was present when my parents met for the first time (39).

Notes to "early panorama and prehistory"
1) so Thomas G.E. Powell in "Europe, Prehistory..", Encyclopaedia Britannica 1964, Bd.8 S.852/3.
2) Jazdzewski, Konrad "prehistory of Central Europe" Wroclaw 1984 S. 271/486; also A. Gieysztor among other things. "History of Poland", Warszawa 1968 S. 31. As contrary opinion O. Kleemann "prehistory Schlesiens" in "history Schlesiens", Stuttgart 1961.
3) over it see O. Pustejowsky "Schlesiens transition detailed to the boehmische crown", Cologne 1975. 4) O. Karzel, "the reformation in Upper Silesia", peppering castle 1979, S.224, generally for propagation of the reformation in the southern Upper Silesia S.150f., 206f. Measures of the Gegenreformation were however early effective: the church in Woschczytz became closed for the lutherischen service 1628.
5) for the early attendance the "Raffelstaedter tariff document" witnesses. In former times a report on a journey originates from the Jewish buyer from Spain Ibrahim ibn Jaqub (G. Rhode "small history of Poland", S.8 and A. Gieysztor a.a.O S... For later Jewish settlement see B. Bretholz "history of the Jews in Maehren in the Middle Ages" I, Bruenn 1934.
6) V. Lip: "the Jews in have-castle-reach the 17.und 18. Century by the example Boehmens and Maehrens ", thesis Zurich 1983, S.103 undS.141.
7) H. Teufel: "to the political and social history of the Jews in Maehren of the start of the Habsburger up to the battle at the white mountain (1526-1620)", Phil. Thesis attaining 1971, S.74, s.84.
8) S. Dubnow: "world history of the Jewish people", Berlin 1928, Bd. VI, S.225 and C d'Elvert: "to the history of the Jews in Maehren and Oesterr. Schlesien", Bruenn, 1895, S.123.
9) B Brilling: "the schlesische Jew shank in the year 1737" in the yearbook of the Schlesi Friedrichs William university to Breslau, Bd. XVII, Berlin 1972.
10) S. Dubnow a.a.O., Bd. VII, S.286f.

Notes to "the family and Kattowitz"
1) Nr.1256 citizen listing in the Official Journal of the royal Breslau government of the 16.November 1814, supplement S.16, its domicile Woschczytz. It is also registered in the register of the Jews living at that time in the circle Pless in the Zydowski Instytut Historyczny w Polsce, Warszawa, married as 1782 born, since 1808 with Saara, and to its household 4 between 1799 and 1806 born stepchildren with the name "Walder" belong. According to excessive quantity and other evidence the wife was Sarah geb. Dutchman, verwitwete Waldau. None of the two registers has columns for the place of birth or name of the father. Over this, my Greatgreatgrandfather we have only the verbal tradition that he was called at its age of Woschczuetz as writing-well-informed after Pilica and died there. That could have been at the time, when Pilica was appropriate for Prussian and Austrian subsection by the divisions of Poland at the border (Gieysztor "History of Poland", map Nr.25).
2) see "Mormonen" film 579598, Bd.29, family registers of the Jews of Sohrau Nr.39. in the 1817 influx entry is registered his birth year as 1779, his occupation as leather trade.
3) of the children of his deceased woman it adopts the 1802 born youngest stepson Isaak, whose son becomes Louis of late joint founders of the well-known ore commercial firm Rawack & Grünfeld.
4) supposed a daughter 1768 born, since 1809 in Nieborowitz, circle Rybnik, resident of restaurant operator/barkeeper Samuel Huldschinsky.
5) manual to the Atlas of Prussia, Erfurt 1836.
6) in the course of the again increasing settlement of Jews in Upper Silesia Woschczytz for 1693 erwaehnt (....), and a Jewish tolerance expensive payer in 1737 is mentioned also for Woschczytz with Brilling S... 7) M. Freudenthal "Leipziger of measuring guests"...
8) Nerlich S.51.
9) A. Weltzel, Geschichte of the city Sohrau, Sohrau 1897, and the newer of G. Nerlich, Dortmund 1972.
10) Weltzel S.65.
11) Weltzel S.431.
12) Nerlich S.46.
13) the manor Bogutzker hammer with Kattowitz and Brynow was sold to 1702 to the Plesser condition gentlemen v. Promnitz. The inventory (arable), which for it was made, registers the names of the settled gardners, under it Skiba (Hofmann S.30) and one mentions also (Majowski 1958, S.25)"Kret, from which because of Bier-und Brannweinverlag the Jew Mittem annually to give tend". A detailed and, into many relationship representation of the history of the village Kattowitz and the following city becoming endeavoring around weighing outness brings itself also S. Karski in Kattowitz (1985). Among the Jewish tolerance expensive payers 1737 (Brilling S.57) hammer a Abraham Moses a name for the villages Bogutschuetz and Zalenze, just like for Woschczytz is registered, also per for Bogutzker. The manor with the villages ignored 1736 from v. Promnitz again to the Myslowitzer condition gentlemen, the Polish aristocracy family v. Mieroszowski.
14) this great-grandfather Peretz (or Perens) Sachs, 1794 born, son then of the 1812 in Maczejkowitz, circle Beuthen, resident and citizen become Isaac Sachs, pulled 1819 of Hajduck, circle Beuthen, after Smilowitz, with Nikolai, circle Pless and married there the 1799 born daughter Minel of the 1812 there to resident Joachim Ludniowski, which is born proven even as 1763. The married couple Peretz Sachs pulled 1827 with 3 children from Smilowitz to Zalenze, at that time convenient in the circle Beuthen.
15) under the publications over it see Dr. Ernst Koenigsfeld in "Schlesien" IV, 1984. From Polish side, where one remembers also gladly this Englishman among the pioneers of the uppersilesian steel industry, the brochure "John Baildon" of Jerzy Sikora (Katowickie Tow.Spo.Kult.).
16) Majowski 1958 S.55/6.
17) Hoffmann S.34.
18) Broszat, Martin "two hundred year German Poland politics" S.90.
19) Broszat S.105. it is interesting that the stress was on the requirement of loyalty in relation to the Prussian state and its monarchy, to whose stabilization knowledge of the German office language be spread should, but it should not is forced upon and "each appearance of a tried displacement or impairment of the Polish element is avoided" (memorandum v. Arnim Arnim-Boitzenburg, quotes from M. Broszat).
20) in an atmosphere, which already developed to the liberal 1848 revolution, the leader of the liberals in the Prussian federal state parliament, George v. Vincke, had explained, the Grand Duchy of floats, also parts of other Prussian provinces, so to Upper Silesia would not only have to be regarded "as the Polish nationality associated". S. Broszat, S.108.
21) Broszat, S.116.
22) for 1783 hoping man registers 490 inhabitants for Kattowitz with Brynow, 1825 675, 1836 is it according to Atlas of Prussia, Erfurt, 785 inhabitants. For 1867 there is already 4,815 without Brynow, which was not included in the new city.
23) hoping man S.54.
24) publications of the Katowickie Towarzystwo Spoleczno Kulturalne and also there Krystyna Szaraniec "Znani i nieznani Katowiczanie".
25) Dr. J. Cohn, Geschichte of the synagog municipality Kattowitz, S.1.
26) Hoffmann, S.71. also the new publication Kattowitz 1985 treats the procedures at that time in detail, thus Dr. S. Karski S.30/37.
27) S. Wenzel, "Jewish citizens and local autonomy", S. 126/8.
28) Fuchs, Konrad, Wirtschaftshistoriker in Mainz, mentions the establishment of the enterprise by this 3 "Kattowitzer Finanziers"; to "the Bismarck hut in Upper Silesia..." in the series of publications to "it gives a detailed representation of the work, which was renamed when desired soon his technical pioneer William Kollmann in Bismarck hut tradition" 15/1970.
29) the construction industry was very successful and had means made grandfather a very much recognized and wealthy man. From the year 1877 certifications originate over from it implemented work in the uppersilesian industry. Thus William Kollmann certifies Um-und new building (1869/72) of the whole metallurgical plant that at that time W. Hegenscheidt' Baildonhuette under most difficult conditions, while the hut was in continual enterprise, including difficult foundation and cement work for the machines, steam hammers, boilers and chimneys. The second certification of Kollmann certifies the buildings at the Bismarck hut 1872/4 (the whole Puddel and rolling mill with 12 large fire-places, the administration building and 10 large worker houses). Similar praising is the certification of the Mr. Bernhardi for Gie over work 1874/76 among other things at the William and Pauli pauli-Zinkhuetten. It mentioned particularly 302 foot high eats. There are then still old certifications of the Schlesag (a zinc hut company), the Thiele Thiele-Winkler' administration and concerning railway administration work in Kattowitz, king hut, Beuthen, Gleiwitz and Neuberun.
30) in a report on the inauguration of the new High School 1900 (from Kattowitzer newspaper, printed in the Oberschlesische Kurier, Salzgitter) both brothers are mentioned, the advice of building of cities Max Grünfeld thereby with a medal were distinguished in these characteristics, since the High School was built after its drafts. Many year late mention (also in a a contribution in the the Kattowitzer newspaper, print in the Oberschlesischen Kurier) the the times Kattowitzer town councillor Louis Dame, also a a master, in its memory to Kattowitz, the concerning town construction protrude the land development the at that time August Schneiderstrasse (late and still today ulica Mickiewicza): the urban bath house, thereafter the synagog (likewise by my uncle the Max Grünfeld was sketched) and then evenly the High School, everything in a row, in similar red building of bricks. It remembered at that time this solution as a special piece of jewellery concerning town construction for Kattowitz. For an illustration see compilation Kattowitz, 1985, S.92. 1939 disturbed the national socialists as intruders the row, blew up as one of their first acts them the synagog.
31) Maximilian Harden in its book of "heads", S.141, it as family doctor secret advice Holstein, the well-known "grey Eminenz" mentions in the Foreign Office.
32) as a student in Würzburg he joined at that time the "German Burschenschaft", like some others from strongly assimilated Jewish families.
33) In 1836 the city of Rackwitz had 1836 1494 inhabitants, "grain markets" visited according to Atlas by Prussia. Josef Oettinger was ca. 50 years municipality chiefs, created 1806 the "Chevra Kadisha", it died 1862. A son, Hermann Noah, as "piously and charitably admits", created the trading firm H.N. Oettinger & Cie. in Hamburg (Hepner S. 879).
34) a copy of its thesis (with personal record: Date of birth 1808, had written the High School in floats) about "Hippokrates, vita, philosophia et acre medica", in Latin language, I in the zentralbibliothek Zurich found visited and to copy to be able.
35) Her family gave it in Wollstein, to it to belonged Moritz Schiff and Mrs. Sydonie born v. Taussig, who had relationship in Hungary.
36) He is to have become a very successful industrieller, who came in recent years without means from Litauen to East Prussia, with a younger brother, it let whom study and who as a civil servant and scientist in Prussian statistic offices made a career and whom secret advice title received. That was then probably the earliest in my family, but I had found no details over it.
37) Paul Gerber was neck - in addition, nose and ear physician, professor at the University of Königsberg, also with secret advice title, poems and also small political writings, so one published around 1918 called "Goethe and the French revolution, a blue comfort booklet in red time". Politically it to the German national people's party, it belonged died already young to 1919.
38) He was Assistenzarzt of the well-known Dr. Fluegge and afterwards, until 1914 when he went to 1914 to war, head-physician of Dr. Pfeiffer in Breslau. As a student it belonged to the "Akademisch-Literarischen Verein" in Breslau.
Last Modified 11 Dec 2005Created 21 Mar 2024 by Jim Falk